of Vergangenheitsbewältigung (coping with the past) to the forefront for many Germans. They were shipped to concentration camps starting in 1935 and many were killed. Since most of the industrial areas were in the western zones, the Soviet Union was transferred additional reparations. The SS-Totenkopfverbände (death's head units) ran the concentration camps and extermination camps, where millions more were killed. Teachers had to take an oath of loyalty and obedience to Hitler, and those who failed to show sufficient conformity to party ideals were often reported by students or fellow teachers and dismissed. Himmler established the beginnings of a parallel economy under the auspices of the SS Economy and Administration Head Office. The nsdap remained small and marginalised, receiving.6 of the federal vote in 1928, prior to the onset of the Great Depression in 1929. From 1935 onward, the SS spearheaded the persecution of Jews, who were rounded up into ghettos and concentration camps. At universities, appointments to top posts were the subject of power struggles between the education ministry, the university boards, and the National Socialist German Students' League. By 1936, Farben regretted making the deal, as excess profits were by then being generated. F Geography Territorial changes Main article: Territorial evolution of Germany As a result of their defeat in World War I and the resulting Treaty of Versailles, Germany lost Alsace-Lorraine, Northern Schleswig, and Memel. On 2 May, General Helmuth Weidling unconditionally surrendered Berlin to Soviet General Vasily Chuikov. Cambridge; Oxford: Cambridge University Press. According to Raeder, "Our Air Force could not be counted on to guard our transports from the British Fleets, because their operations would depend on the weather, if for no other reason. Pine, Lisa (2011) 2010.